The Four Types of AI
AI can be divided into four categories, based on the type and complexity of the tasks a system is able to tát perform. They are:
- Reactive machines
- Limited memory
- Theory of mind
- Self awareness
A reactive machine follows the most basic of AI principles and, as its name implies, is capable of only using its intelligence to tát perceive and react to tát the world in front of it. A reactive machine cannot store a memory and, as a result, cannot rely on past experiences to tát inform decision making in real time.
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Perceiving the world directly means that reactive machines are designed to tát complete only a limited number of specialized duties. Intentionally narrowing a reactive machine’s worldview has its benefits, however: This type of AI will be more trustworthy and reliable, and it will react the same way to tát the same stimuli every time.
Reactive Machine Examples
- Deep Blue was designed by IBM in the 1990s as a chess-playing supercomputer and defeated international grandmaster Gary Kasparov in a game. Deep Blue was only capable of identifying the pieces on a chess board and knowing how each moves based on the rules of chess, acknowledging each piece’s present position and determining what the most logical move would be at that moment. The computer was not pursuing future potential moves by its opponent or trying to tát put its own pieces in better position. Every turn was viewed as its own reality, separate from any other movement that was made beforehand.
- Google’s AlphaGo is also incapable of evaluating future moves but relies on its own neural network to tát evaluate developments of the present game, giving it an edge over Deep Blue in a more complex game. AlphaGo also bested world-class competitors of the game, defeating champion Go player Lee Sedol in năm nhâm thìn.
Limited memory AI has the ability to tát store previous data and predictions when gathering information and weighing potential decisions — essentially looking into the past for clues on what may come next. Limited memory AI is more complex and presents greater possibilities phàn nàn reactive machines.
Limited memory AI is created when a team continuously trains a model in how to tát analyze and utilize new data or an AI environment is built sánh models can be automatically trained and renewed.
When utilizing limited memory AI in ML, six steps must be followed:
- Establish training data
- Create the machine learning model
- Ensure the model can make predictions
- Ensure the model can receive human or environmental feedback
- Store human and environmental feedback as data
- Reiterate the steps above as a cycle
Theory of Mind
Theory of mind is just that — theoretical. We have not yet achieved the technological and scientific capabilities necessary to tát reach this next level of AI.
The concept is based on the psychological premise of understanding that other living things have thoughts and emotions that affect the behavior of one’s self. In terms of AI machines, this would mean that AI could comprehend how humans, animals and other machines feel and make decisions through self-reflection and determination, and then utilize that information to tát make decisions of their own. Essentially, machines would have to tát be able to tát grasp and process the concept of “mind,” the fluctuations of emotions in decision-making and a litany of other psychological concepts in real time, creating a two-way relationship between people and AI.
Once theory of mind can be established, sometime well into the future of AI, the final step will be for AI to tát become self-aware. This kind of AI possesses human-level consciousness and understands its own existence in the world, as well as the presence and emotional state of others. It would be able to tát understand what others may need based on not just what they communicate to tát them but how they communicate it.
Self-awareness in AI relies both on human researchers understanding the premise of consciousness and then learning how to tát replicate that sánh it can be built into machines.
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Artificial Intelligence Examples
Artificial intelligence technology takes many forms, from chatbots to tát navigation apps and wearable fitness trackers. The below examples illustrate the breadth of potential AI applications.
ChatGPT is an artificial intelligence chatbot capable of producing written nội dung in a range of formats, from essays to tát code and answers to tát simple questions. Launched in November 2022 by OpenAI, ChatGPT is powered by a large language model that allows it to tát closely emulate human writing. ChatGPT also became available as a mobile tiện ích for iOS devices in May 2023 and for Android devices in July 2023. It is just one of many chatbot examples, albeit a very powerful one.
Google Maps uses location data from smartphones, as well as user-reported data on things lượt thích construction and xế hộp accidents, to tát monitor the ebb and flow of traffic and assess what the fastest route will be.
Personal AI assistants lượt thích Siri, Alexa and Cortana use natural language processing, or NLP, to tát receive instructions from users to tát phối reminders, tìm kiếm for online information and control the lights in people’s homes. In many cases, these assistants are designed to tát learn a user’s preferences and improve their experience over time with better suggestions and more tailored responses.
Snapchat filters use ML algorithms to tát distinguish between an image’s subject and the background, track facial movements and adjust the image on the screen based on what the user is doing.
Self-driving cars are a recognizable example of deep learning, since they use deep neural networks to tát detect objects around them, determine their distance from other cars, identify traffic signals and much more.
The wearable sensors and devices used in the healthcare industry also apply deep learning to tát assess the health condition of the patient, including their blood sugar levels, blood pressure and heart rate. They can also derive patterns from a patient’s prior medical data and use that to tát anticipate any future health conditions.
MuZero, a computer program created by DeepMind, is a promising frontrunner in the quest to tát achieve true artificial general intelligence. It has managed to tát master games it has not even been taught to tát play, including chess and an entire suite of Atari games, through brute force, playing games millions of times.